eucalyptus grandis south africa

They also suggested that predawn stomatal opening might increase early-morning photosynthesis. The timber has a pinkish tinge and is used in joinery, flooring, boat building, panelling and plywood. Stems require a bending stimulus of 24–48 h before tension wood is formed (Jourez and Avella-Shaw, 2003). When this was tested experimentally in T. scleroxylon, it was found that there are complex interactions between nutrients and the quantity and quality of light, which affected photosynthesis and the carbohydrate status of cuttings. Table 1: Eucalyptus and Water Use in South Africa. In this case, survival of the outbred salmon was 82.2% and survival of salmon from full-sib matings was only 59.4%. The climate on the eastern seaboard of Southern Africa is ideally suited to producing most of the Eucalyptus, Pinus and Acacia species grown commercially for saw log and pulp production. The sample tree had a diameter at breast height of 13.3 cm and was located on a south-southwest-facing slope. On the other hand, if a susceptible tree species or genotype has to be used for sound economic reasons, then planting it in a habitat where its health and vigor will be optimal may enable resulting pest problems to be tolerated. Shoot etiolation under low irradiance and the preseverance elimination of light from the area of the cutting base independently and additively enhance subsequent rooting ability, having histological effects on stem development and retarded sclereid development. In Norway spruce mycorrhizal with Thelephora terrestris, a higher phosphomonoesterase activity was found in mycorrhizal roots and rhizomorphs than nonmycorrhizal roots. 6.4). Warning: Illegal string offset 'category_id' in /usr/www/users/foressa/engine/ on line 142. Eucalyptus grandis E. grandis is probably most widely planted eucalypt for industrial wood production, with an estimated plantation area of about 2 million ha in 1987 (Burgess 1988). Sap flow velocity at the base of large trees frequently lags behind crown transpiration in the morning and exceeds it in the evening, reflecting the capacitance of stem and crown portions of the Soil–Plant–Atmosphere Continuum (Cohen et al., 1985) (Fig. Nearly all the other local eucalyptus grandis seed sources have hybrid and are not pure seeds. The curves of Figure 7 also suggest that under the prevailing conditions planting of the lower 30% of the catchment would have a much greater impact than planting the uppermost 30%. Conversely, where soil water is scarcer, slopes gentle and concave, and depth to the water table shallow, a more pronounced effect is possible because trees located closer to the stream will have more ready access to the groundwater table. Heat pulse velocities (HPV) on north-, south-, and east-facing sides of a black oak tree in August. Most of these are in Brazil and South Africa, but there also large plantation areas in Argentina, Australia, India, Uruguay, Zambia and other countries (Eldridge et al . The improved mineral nutrition of mycorrhizal plants is well documented, in particular, a role in the uptake of P by ectomycorrhizae or arbuscular mycorrhizae, and N uptake by ectomycorrhizae and to a lesser extent arbuscular mycorrhizae. Warmer winters, for whatever climatic reason, are now allowing the pest to cause much more damage to the widely planted but genetically susceptible Sitka spruce. (1968), Jupp and Newman (1987) found that even a mild drought stopped P uptake by perennial ryegrass, due to unavailability of P after the soil dried, although some recovery occurred 2–3 weeks after rewetting, with ~ 40% reduction in the final amount of P taken up compared with the undroughted control. Tension wood acts by pulling the stem into the erect position and thus generates tensile stress rather than the compression stress that occurs in compression wood. Reproduced with permission from Vertessy RA, Zhang L, and Dawes WR (2003) Plantations, river flows and river salinity. Ten paired catchment experiments have studied the effects of afforestation with Pinus radiata, P. patula, and Eucalyptus grandis within catchments. This species is a native of Australia, but has now spread to most parts of the tropical, semitropical, and warm temperate parts of the world where eucalyptus is grown, including Asia, Africa, southern Europe, and the USA. Changes in annual water yield vs. percentage forest cover change (solid circles denote experimental data of Bosch and Hewlett (1982); open circles those of Trimble et al. The broken horizontal line indicates the 50% heterozygosity expected. The lower of these reductions in streamflow are similar to results obtained after planting E. globulus in high elevation grassland areas in the subhumid South of India (c. 20 mm per 10% forest year−1) whereas the highest reductions in South Africa rather resemble the changes observed after planting P. caribaea on seasonal grasslands in Fiji (50–60 mm per 10% year−1). Comparative genomics tools have also become available in Populus (Douglas and DiFazio, 2010; Neale and Ingvarsson, 2008) and Eucalyptus (Külheim et al., 2009; Paiva et al., 2011). In general, K > P > N > Ca in regard to leaching losses from foliage. The two species that grow well in hotter, drier areas are eucalyptus camaldulensis and eucalyptus tereticornis. The frequency of heterozygotes A1A2 and homozygotes A1A1 and A2A2 in 28 progeny from a plant heterozygous for 1019 genes along chromosome 1 (location of genes given here are in Mb) in Eucalyptus grandis Hedrick et al., 2016a). To demonstrate the basis of this, we can compare the proportion of recessive homozygotes for a given inbreeding coefficient (Qf) to that in a non-inbred population (where the frequency of recessive homozygotes is Q=q2). South Africa is one of the leading countries worldwide in Saw log and pulp production. Multi-locus DNA sequence identification on a recent collection of Botryosphaeriaceae from Eucalyptus grandis and Syzygium cordatum trees in South Africa revealed cross-infectivity of several species, novel host associations and new country reports. Overall, 9560 genes were heterozygous in the parent and were examined in the progeny group. At maturity, it reaches 50 metres (160 ft) tall, though the largest specimens can exceed 80 … Alternatively, Caird et al. In Eucalyptus grandis, the histone EgH1.3 functions to regulate wall deposition and lignification in particular [57]. Under humid conditions in the eastern USA, the reverse operation (i.e., forest clear-cutting) did not show a significant difference in streamflow response after cutting the upper half of the catchment or the lower half. Published experimental results often represent the maximum possible impacts on streamflow. However, only 34% of these genes were homozygous in this progeny group, a deficiency that was present on all 11 chromosomes. Certainly, the maintenance of tree vigor by thinning is a significant factor in reducing susceptibility to pests, but it is important not to leave thinned timber lying within stands or even in adjacent log piles, for fear of new pests breeding and proliferating in the debris. In fact invasive Eucalyptus species in South Africa are responsible for the loss of 16% of the 1,444 million cubic metres of water resources lost to invasive plants every year. Larvae feed and grow under the bark of lodgepole pine trees; when they are sufficiently abundant, their tunneling ring barks (girdles) the host tree which dies, providing, incidentally, ideal breeding sites for a large number of secondary pests. 12.13) was attributed to a low winter snowpack followed by a dry spring (Lopushinsky, 1986). Trials have, however, been done on eucalyptus cloeziana, eculayptus pellita, eucalyptus urophylla, eucalyptus dunnii, eucalyptus longirostrata and corymbia citriodora var.variagata (previously eucalyptus citriodora). Annual additions of coarse woody debris can be estimated by recording the amount that falls across string lines laid out annually in a large grid under a forest canopy. Maximum rates of sap flow in trees are reported to vary between 1 and 2 m hr−1 in conifers, 1 to 6 m hr−1 in diffuse-porous trees, and 4 to 40 m hr−1 in ring-porous trees (Zimmermann and Brown, 1971). High-throughput SNP genotyping coupled with the candidate gene approach has been used for association mapping with phenotypes of interest and aided in the dissection of complex traits such as wood quality, drought or cold tolerance, and disease resistance (Dillon et al., 2010; Eckert et al., 2009a,b). In Eucalyptus grandis and E. maculata, inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Pisolithus spp. The latter trees were relatively lightly attacked by the pest, but the insects quickly discovered the exotic trees, which were not only more suitable but also planted in large, even-aged stands on very poor soils. Reproduced with permission from Trimble SW, Weirich FH, and Hoag BL (1987) Reforestation and the reduction of water yield on the southern Piedmont since circa 1940. Both ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae can greatly increase the volume of soil exploited due to the extent and high surface area of the extramatrical mycelium. Much of the benefit of mycorrhizae in mineral nutrient acquisition is a consequence of the extramatrical or extraradical mycelium. General flowchart depicting the ‘rights and wrongs’ of ecological control. Factors which increase the risk of trees being attacked by pests and diseases. Suriyagoda, ... Hans Lambers, in, Officer et al., 2009a,b; Rodriguez et al., 1996, Dunham and Nye, 1976; Jupp and Newman, 1987; Mackay and Barber, 1985, TREE PHYSIOLOGY | Physiology of Vegetative Reproduction, HYDROLOGY | Impacts of Forest Plantations on Streamflow, Vertessy RA, Zhang L, and Dawes WR (2003), Trimble SW, Weirich FH, and Hoag BL (1987), Physiology of Woody Plants (Third Edition), Miller, D. R., Vavrina, C. A., and Christensen, T. W. (1980), HEALTH AND PROTECTION | Integrated Pest Management Principles, Damage during growth (e.g., pruning or brashing), Introduction of exotic pests by travel and trade, Planting near to pest reservoirs in older and/or natural stands, Poor match between tree and site/climate leading to tree stress, Provision of pest reservoirs in thinnings or logs. These small pockets provide new colonists which spread into the surrounding forests, causing much more widespread and serious damage. As seen above, both nutrients and light have been confirmed to have major effects as preconditioning agents on rooting ability, a finding confirmed in Albizia guachapele. However, as the mycorrhizal contribution is so high, it is very likely that under field conditions mycorrhizae play a significant role in P acquisition. To quantify the effects of inbreeding on survival, Morton et al. The changes in these stockplant factors are largely attributable to changes in the physiological condition of the shoots and are often related to vigor; thus they can be seen as a component of physiological aging. (2002) determined the survival of outbred (f=0) and inbred (from brother–sister matings, f=0.25) endangered winter-run chinook salmon exposed to the whirling disease parasite. Van Lill et al. Disease was often associated with extreme environmental conditions such as drought, hot winds and frost. A tall, evergreen tree with a shaft-like trunk 25-55m high with smooth bark except for the part of the trunk up to 4m from the ground. Stomata may also not close completely at night. Figure 8. Eucalyptus grandis plantations cover a much wider range of climates in South Africa than it does in Australia. Find the perfect eucalyptus grandis stock photo. Both low irradiance and low red-to-far-red ratios independently enhanced rooting ability, but in many natural systems these characteristics of shade occur together and probably have additive benefits. Although generally steep, the catchments have deep, well-drained soils and show very low stormflow response to rainfall. This is because rainwater infiltrating into the soil percolates more or less vertically to the water table, then moves laterally as groundwater to the nearest stream without being taken up again by the roots of the trees. While many other plantation species such as pines and legumes, have become serious invaders in many parts of the world, Eucalyptus species have been not been nearly as successful in invading alien ), and variations in stand age and productivity between species. Thus, although Eucalyptus grandis and E. sieberi have similar Ca concentrations in foliage (0.5%), their bark contents differ from ~2.0 to <0.05% (Turner and Gessel, 1990). Nutrient Withdrawal and Leaching from Foliage before Abscission in Conifers and Broad-leaved Species, Expressed as Percent Change of Dry Weighta, D.F. Figure 4.3. Gum trees ( Eucalyptus sp.) As soil moisture decreased during the summer, the rate of sap movement no longer followed evaporative demand. The velocity of flow in conifers and diffuse-porous trees is low, as water moves through conducting elements in a number of annual rings of sapwood, whereas in ring-porous broadleaved trees it moves rapidly through relatively few vessels located in only one or two annual rings (Chapter 11). Figure 6.4. Although nighttime transpiration would seem wasteful, it may be an unavoidable consequence of exposing an imperfectly sealed organ in a dry environment. Although inbreeding depression seems to be a nearly universal phenomenon, the extent of inbreeding depression varies for different species and even for different populations of the same species, depending upon the evolutionary history of the population. The mechanisms for this enhancement seem to be both morphological and physiological; cuttings from shaded stockplants of Eucalyptus grandis have longer internodes, greater specific leaf area, greater codominance between shoots, lower rates of preseverance net photosynthesis, lower chlorophyll concentration, but higher rates of net photosynthesis per unit of chlorophyll, and many other differences in gas exchange characters (Figure 8). » Lets Find out the Latest South African Eucalyptus Grandis Essential Oil Suppliers and South African Eucalyptus Grandis Essential Oil Buyers » Find Eucalyptus Grandis Essential (2007) suggested that nighttime transpiration, by its promotion of root water absorption, may enhance nutrient availability to the plant. Even in some parts of the tropics, seasonal cycles in transpiration occur because of variations in rainfall, humidity, and soil moisture. Trees of the same species within the same stands can also act as pest reservoirs, especially when outbreaks are, initially at least, localized to small pockets of damage or death. However, South Africa also distinguishes itself by the excellence in planted forests and is worldwide acknowledged for the advanced technological levels developed for the forests and industrialized products obtained from Pinus, Eucalyptus, and Acacia mearnsii. Transpiration data for seedlings of two deciduous hardwoods and loblolly pine in Table 12.4 show that although the hardwoods transpired about twice as rapidly as pine per unit of leaf surface, the transpiration per seedling of similar size was greater for the pine because of its greater leaf surface. Nutrient return in litterfall can vary seasonally from year to year depending on forest composition and the leaf abscission process. In many studies transpiration is indirectly monitored by measurement of sap flow velocity using various techniques (Kaufmann and Kelliher, 1991). Flooded gum is an attractive, straight-trunked tree much in demand outside Australia for timber and pulp, and extensive plantations exist in South Africa and Brazil. It is possible that experimental systems may overestimate the mycorrhizal contribution to P acquisition. Supplying P resulted in more rapid root and shoot growth during the part of the drying cycle when moisture availability was favorable. Comparative transcriptomics is being employed to study the molecular basis of complex traits such as drought tolerance (Cohen et al., 2010) and fungal resistance (Barakat et al., 2009). There are various stages in the growth of a forest crop when hands-on intervention is called for. Reductions in streamflow as measured in five catchment afforestation experiments in South Africa. The effects of preseverance light quality on rooting ability have now been demonstrated in a number of different taxa but, as expected, there are differences in stem and leaf morphology. SEE, standard error of estimate. Later, stands need thinning to reduce competition between trees. Water SA 23: 135–140. Zimbabwe. The timing of the first significant reductions in flow after planting varies quite widely depending on the rate at which catchments are dominated by the plantation crop. Shown (as symbols) are field data from four pine forestation experiments in Australia and New Zealand. The following Eucalyptus species have been able to become naturalised in South Africa: E. camaldulensis, E. cladocalyx, E. diversicolor, E. grandis and E. lehmannii. Reasons for insect pest outbreaks – tree health decline, Table 9. Timber. Most other eucalyptus grandis seed will be un-cleaned, with expected seedling yields closer to 100,000-150,000 per kg (note: Always check the germination rate with each batch of seed from the seed supplier). However, the same species of pine had an earlier effect on streamflow (within 3 years) under the drier conditions prevailing in the Mokobulaan B catchment in Mpumalanga Province (Mok-B in Figure 8). Supporting the results of Wilson et al. Tension wood formation may involve auxin and gibberellin although evidence for direct effects of auxin on tension wood formation are sometimes conflicting suggesting that interactions between plant hormones may be important. As such, they are likely to consume more water than trees further away from the stream that have less direct access to groundwater to supplement diminished soil water reserves. The plantation areas in South Africa fall into high rainfall zones. In 1996, a coppice trial was initiated in Zululand, South Africa on Eucalyptus grandis x E. camaldulensis, to investigate: the effects of an early first coppice reduction to two stems per stump (at a height of 2 m as opposed to the standard commercial height of 4 m), … (2004, 2005) reported that between 13 and 28% of total daily water loss occurred at night during the dry season when vapor pressure deficit remained high. That is, the equivalent of two to three genes were segregating in the winter-run chinook salmon population that if IBD would result in mortality from whirling disease. Proteomics research in forest trees is still limited and restricted to a few genera (Abril et al., 2011). (2007) summarized findings of numerous studies of nighttime stomatal conductance and transpiration in diverse C3 and C4 plants, finding that nighttime transpiration rates were typically 5 to 15% of daytime rates but could be as high as 30%. Six gum trees are regulated under the NEMBA Alien and Invasive Species Regulations. Eucalyptus grandisbelongs to the Myrtaceae family; it is native to Australia but massive planting programs have been carried out in the Republic of South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Measurement of sap flow and transpiration in ring-porous oaks using a heat pulse velocity technique. Made in South Africa Eucalyptus Logs Directory - Offering Wholesale South African Eucalyptus Logs from South Africa Eucalyptus Logs Manufacturers, Suppliers and Distributors at Return of nutrients in litterfall is the major route of recycling from vegetation to soil. South Africa..... 52 Figure 4.3 A comparison of volume yields from the study area to trials in ... Eucalyptus grandis W. Hill ex Maiden was introduced to Caazapá, Paraguay in the late 1990s and to Pindoyu, a settlement of Caazapá, in 2005. 4.1), lack of plant acclimation to enhance P uptake, and/or death of the P-absorbing roots in the topsoil (Forde, 1972; Suriyagoda et al., 2011). This expression can be solved to give the number of lethal equivalents as. Comparative water use efficiency (WUE) values among Eucalyptus species and clones grown in South Africa, expressed as annual stem volume increment per unit volume of water transpired (m 3 wood m −3 water). In a temperate deciduous forest, Gosz et al. R.R.B. Kakooza says as long as one uses improved seeds, eucalyptus grandis will produce large, straight stems and could provide you with a good income from two to three years (building poles), large poles by eight years and timber from around 12 years onwards. Even within the same genus, large differences exist in the quality of litter produced from some components. 4.3) and relative growth rate (maize (Zea mays L.): Premachandra et al., 1990; rice (Oryza sativa L.): He et al., 2004; flooded gum (Eucalyptus grandis): Graciano et al., 2005; barley (Hordeum vulgare L.): Jones et al., 2005; cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.): Burman et al., 2009; wheat: Officer et al., 2009a,b; Rodriguez et al., 1996), tiller and leaf appearance (wheat: Gutierrez-Boem and Thomas, 1998), grain/seed yield (barley: Jones et al., 2005; cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.): Singh et al., 2006; cluster bean: Burman et al., 2009), and translocation of P to the grain (soybean: Jin et al., 2006) (Table 4.1). Australian Forestry 66: 55–61. The curves are scaled for 100% planting of the catchment and smoothed to the mean annual runoff (MAR) prior to planting. Application of P under drought increases plant aboveground dry weight (Fig. Hedrick, in Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Biology, 2016. Plant hormones including ethylene are involved in tension wood induction (Andersson-Gunnerås et al., 2003). These are: (1) tree species and site-matching (essentially environmental); and (2) the use of resistant or nonsusceptible tree species or genotypes (essentially genetic). Many Eucalypts have formed the backbone of forestry in South Africa since the 1800s. Differences in litter quality affect decomposition rates, the availability of nutrients to other plants, and, potentially, the development of soils under different types of vegetation (Turner and Lambert, 1988; Gower and Son, 1992). Diurnal pattern of stem sap flow (▴) estimated from heat pulse velocity measurements and foliage transpiration rate (Δ) of a Douglas-fir tree in August. As with softwoods the exact mechanism of gravity perception is not understood in hardwood trees but because single tension wood fibers can occur in isolation there must be a mechanism localized to individual developing fiber cells. Using a portable gas analyzer to assess rates of preseverance net photosynthesis and transpiration in stockplants of Zizyphus mauritiana. Comparative mapping studies have uncovered extensive synteny and colinearity in conifers (Krutovsky et al., 2004; Pelgas et al., 2006), together with small chromosomal disruptions (Shepherd and Williams, 2008) leading to deeper understanding of speciation. Moderating factors include the fraction of the catchment planted, planting position within the catchment (upstream or downstream parts, close to or away from the streams, blocks vs. strips, etc. In conclusion, differences in dry weight and amount of P taken up among plant species under dual moisture and P limitations greatly depend on the rate of soil drying and wetting (rewetting), changes in plant uptake capacity and the severity and duration of drought period/cycle, as well as soil properties (e.g., WHC, soil P status and biological properties like the AM symbioses, as we discuss below and show in Table 4.1). Many earlier results were summarized by Kramer and Kozlowski (1979). Within Australia, plantations exist in northern New South Wales, where seedlings have put on 7 metres (23 feet) of growth in their first year. (1987). Hence, in the case of plantations, one could assume that if only half of a grassland catchment would be forested then the estimated reduction in mean annual runoff would also be about half of the maximum reduction predicted by Figure 5 for a given annual rainfall total (assuming that plantation position in the catchment does not influence the result). Indeed, the predicted effect on streamflow of tree planting differed strongly depending whether forestation started at the top of the hillsides and progressively moved downslope or vice versa. For ecological, economic, technological, and social reasons, it is frequently impossible to control a pest outbreak or eradicate a damaging species even locally once the damage has begun, and so it is vital to grow trees, whether at a local agroforestry level or in an industrial plantation, in ways that reduce the probability of serious pest incidence. One example which encompasses both environmental and genetic factors involves the eucalyptus longhorn beetle, Phoracantha semipunctata (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae). The logical approach to the prevention of this pest is (1) to plant Eucalyptus species which are naturally drought-tolerant; and (2) if drought-intolerant ones are required for silvicultural reasons, only put them on sites with moist soils in climates without a prolonged dry season. Thus far, Populus trichocarpa (Tuskan et al., 2006) and Eucalyptus grandis102 are the only forest trees for which the genome sequence has been completed. Some hardwood species have a low propensity for forming reaction wood. Not all hardwoods form tension wood; notable exceptions are the vessel-less angiosperms, such as Pseudowintera and Sarcandra (Aiso et al., 2014), which form compression wood-like reaction wood, and the shrub Buxus, which has a highly lignified S2L layer similar to that found in conifer compression wood (Yoshizawa et al., 1993). For an absolute basis of comparison, nutrient concentrations should be expressed on a per unit of leaf area basis to take into account seasonal changes in specific leaf mass (Fig. Experimental control was provided by catchments kept under native vegetation. The same golden rules for establishment of all eucalyptus crops apply-namely thorough land preparation, pre-plant weed control, planting only good quality seedlings, planting early in the rains, blanking (infilling) no later than three weeks after the initial planting and most importantly, regular weeding in the first few months after planting. Finally, when the trees are eventually harvested, damage to remaining trees by logging or skidding damage must be avoided, and log piles must not remain for any length of time close to younger plantations. Based on Scott DF and Smith RE (1997) Preliminary empirical models to predict reductions in total and low flows resulting from afforestation. When comparing P treatments, the recovery upon rewatering was greater in P-fertilized plants than in unfertilized plants (white clover (Trifolium repens L.): Singh et al., 1997; cluster bean: Burman et al., 2009) (Table 4.1). Arkush et al. The resulting streamflow reductions over time after planting follow a sigmoidal pattern comparable to a growth curve (Figure 8). Growing Eucalyptus well is not easy and requires careful cultural practices, especially the use of improved seeds, intensive land preparation and thorough weeding (both pre and post-planting). These ideas have been tested in modeling experiments in the context of southeast Australia, the results of which lend support to the notion that plantation position could indeed affect catchment water yield under conditions of low rainfall (700 mm), gentle slopes, and high watertables (Figure 7). Exposure to low temperature is said to greatly reduce transpiration of conifers (Christersson, 1972). Below ground, nutrients returned annually, as fine roots die, may match or exceed the amount contributed through leaf litter (Vogt et al., 1986). Transcriptome profiling is particularly challenging in tree species due to their large genome sizes and lack of reference sequences. In forest soils the majority of P in the rooting layer is in the form of organic P. The levels of phosphatase in mycorrhizae are often similar to those of tree fine roots. Additionally, transcriptomic data, together with linkage mapping, are being used for the identification of candidate genes (Kirst et al., 2004; Sederoff et al., 2009). Eucalyptus GRANDIS (South Africa/Fortportal): Good for wet areas, commonly known as the flooded gum or rose gum, is a tall tree with smooth bark, rough at the base fibrous or flaky, grey to grey-brown. Pinus sylvestris seedlings colonized with Suillus bovinus were able to utilize N from the litter fermentation layer of a forest soil. In some cases stomatal conductance rose at the end of the night to near daytime levels (Bucci et al., 2004). Fine roots also lose nitrogen and potassium through exudation and leaching. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. Although the fraction of nutrients withdrawn (or leached) from fresh foliage before abscission varies considerably among species (Table 4.3), the concentrations of nutrients in leaf litter are closely correlated with those in fresh foliage for a given species and site (Miller and Miller, 1976; Hunter et al., 1985). However, it was unclear whether plants with adequate P continued growing under drier conditions more so than P-deficient plants. Tension wood may occur in milder forms as scattered patches that consist of only a few or even single affected fibers. Considerable differences have been observed between species but these are not necessarily the same in different areas. Figure 2. Both ectomycorrhizae and arbuscular mycorrhizae have high levels of phosphatase activity, which are important in the utilization of organic P sources. An example of inbreeding depression is in the Australian tree Eucalyptus grandis, which is used for timber production throughout the world.

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